Capri is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town on the island shares the name. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic.
Features of the island are the Marina Piccola (the little harbour), the Belvedere of Tragara (a high panoramic promenade lined with villas), the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea (the Faraglioni), the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra), and the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas.
Capri is part of the region of Campania, Province of Naples. The town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has two harbours, Marina Piccola and Marina Grande (the main port of the island). The separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west.
Pompeii's ancient origins as those of Rome, in fact the gens Pompeia was descended from an early Italic peoples, the Oscans. Only after the mid-seventh century BC, a primitive settlement had to be set at Pompeii of the future: maybe not a settlement itself, but more likely a small cluster around node saw the commercial crossroads of three major roads, modeled in full historical period from the streets from Cumae, from Nola and Stabia.
The first traces of a settlement of some importance date back to Pompeii, the sixth century BC, although in this period the city, still quite small, does not reveal the need to make use of a master plan and it seems the result of a cluster of buildings rather disorganized and spontaneous.
In the second century BC the intensive cultivation of land and the consequent massive export of olive oil and wine brought great prosperity to the city and a high standard of living: it suffices to recall the wealth of some houses and their luxurious furnishings. The House of the Faun, for example, can rival in size (almost 3000 sq ft) even with the most famous royal residences Hellenistic.
At the outbreak of the social war (91 BC), Pompeii was an ally against Rome, along with other towns of Campania, in an attempt to achieve full citizenship. But it was impossible to resist the superior military might of Rome in 89 BC Silla, after capitulate Stabia, went to Pompeii, who attempted a vigorous defense by reinforcing the city walls and using the aid of the Celts led by L. Clutentius. Any attempt at resistance proved futile and the city soon fell. 80 BC completely and entered the orbit of Rome, and Sylla moved a colony of veterans who took the name of Cologne Venerea Pompeianorum Sillana.
In 62 the city was shaken by an earthquake at the time of the eruption of 79 many buildings were still under reconstruction.
Pompei World Heritage
In 1997, UNESCO declared World Heritage Pompeii. The Committee has decided to enter this area on the basis of cultural criteria whereas the extraordinary finds in the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and nearby towns, buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79, are a complete testimony and living in society and everyday life at a precise moment of the past, and do not find its equivalent anywhere in the world.
Founded probably by the Greeks, Sorrento suffered temporary supremacy of the Etruscans and then, from 420 BC, the influence of Oscans. In the Roman era is remembered for having taken part in the Italy (90 BC), there was a colony then deducted from Sulla, followed by a later appropriation of veterans of Octavian. Hall was then the tribe Menen. Was a bishopric from at least 420. During the crisis of the Byzantine Italy, Sorrento purchased independently as ducat, first under the rule of the dukes of Naples, then with their archons and dukes, always fighting with Amalfi, Salerno and Saracens. The history of Sorrento is indistinguishable from that of other cities of Campania, and took part in the leagues anti-Muslim, fought the Lombards of Benevento; experienced family struggles among the local nobles. Obligation in the sec. IX by Guaimario Prince of Salerno to accept as their duke's brother, Guido, the Duchy of Sorrento resumed its autonomy after the latter's death and then lose it for good in 1137, absorbed in the new kingdom of the Normans. Sorrento has since been the fate of the kingdom, not without rebellion and conflict, especially early age Aragonese. In 1558 it was taken and sacked by the Turks in the winter of 1648 the city valiantly sustained the siege of John Grillo, General the Duke of Guise.
In the main square, Piazza Tasso is a statue of the holder of it, Torquato Tasso, Sorrento poet famous throughout the world.
The old town still shows the orthogonal layout of the streets of Roman origin, while to the mountain is surrounded by sixteenth century walls. We are the Cathedral, rebuilt in the fifteenth century, with neo-Gothic facade, and the Church of St. Francis of Assisi, with a remarkable fourteenth-century cloister with portico Arabic style arches on pillars that are interwoven orthogonal. In the "Correale Museum" are on display collections of Greek and Roman artefacts and Capodimonte porcelain, with a section of paintings of the XVII-XIX century, the park can enjoy a magnificent view over the bay. At the Punta del Capo, 3 km to the west, are considered Roman ruins of the villa of Pollio Felice (first century AD). Another seaside villa is the Villa of Agrippa Posthumus, "under the current" Hotel Syrene. The villa was built by the hapless grandson of Augustus.
A famous song: Torna a Surriento
Sorrento is dedicated to one of the most famous Neapolitan songs, Torna a Surriento. The song was composed for the visit to Sorrento by Giuseppe Zanardelli, then Prime Minister, 15 September 1902.
The Commander and Baron Guglielmo Tramontano, mayor of the town, and owner Zanardelli hotel where he was staying, took the brothers Giambattista and Ernesto De Curtis to write a song to celebrate the illustrious visitor, with the hope of getting some in return interventions in favor of Sorrento, including the opening of a post office. Ernesto De Curtis recovered an old melody that he had composed some years earlier, and his brother wrote of casting a text appropriate for the occasion: thus was born Torna a Surriento.
With some changes of words, the song was presented at the Festival of Piedigrotta in 1905 from there began the great success of this song become one of the most famous Neapolitan songs in the world.
Legend has it that Hercules, who returned from killing the monster Geryon (the tenth of his twelve labors), had stopped in Rome, where he asked the goddess Fauna of drink, but he refused, since his holy water was reserved for women only . In anger, Hercules built a temple in honor of himself, and forbade women to attend their ceremonies.
Meanwhile, a son of Vulcan, the Caco Daemon, stole a part of the herd of cattle that Hercules himself had taken the monster Geryon, and were destined to the town of Argos. The hero is very angry and began looking for the oxen, but it proved very difficult because the demon Caco had brought the beasts in his cave dragging by the tail, so that the footprints indicate the inverse direction.
Just when he was about to give up one of the cattle responded to the call of Hercules, who thus discovered where he was hiding the thief, once reached, he discovered that the sounds came from a cave that had been locked from the inside but with a huge boulder. Hercules then took a sharp cliff and managed to break through into the cave.
Caco tried to defend himself from the jaws spewing a huge cloud of smoke that enveloped the cave, but Hercules leaped through the smoke, Caco grabbed and squeezed his eyes so that he get out of his head, killing him.
Then, the animals recovered, he decided to return to Argos, and to continue the hard work the last two remaining, but first wanted to build a city at the place where he recovered the cattle, which was necessary for the fulfillment of the Tenth Company, founded as a town and gave his name: Herculaneum.
Naples in Neapolitan Napule, is an Italian city, capital of the province and the region Campania. It is the third largest municipality by population administration after Rome and Milan with 962,447 inhabitants , while its metropolitan area, according to the data to which reference is made, varies between 3 and 5 million people.
Naples is located almost centrally located on the gulf, between the Vesuvius and the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei in a scenario called "the most celebrated and beautiful in the world". Its vast artistic and architectural heritage is protected by UNESCO, whose commissions have included since 1995 the historical center of Naples between the sites of world heritage. In his first settlement on the hill of Pizzofalcone of Parthenope was founded in the ninth and eighth centuries BC by Greek colonists and subsequently refounded as Neapolis (Νεάπολις in greek) in the low area between the late sixth and early fifth century BC, it is counted among the major cities of Magna Graecia. During his nearly three thousand years history of Naples will see a succession of long and numerous foreign domination, plays a prominent position in Italy and Europe.
After the Roman Empire in the seventh century, the city formed an independent dukedom, independent from the Byzantine Empire, and later, from the thirteenth century and for about six hundred years was the capital of the largest pre-unification Italian state, which included all of Italy south peninsular and, in some periods, even Sicily. From Naples, in the early fifteenth century, under Ladislas of Durazzo, started on the first attempt at reunification of Italy, after which the city became the political center Aragonese Empire.
For historical, artistic, political and environmental was, from the late Middle Ages until the unity among the main centers of culture, like the other major capitals of the continent.
The Unification of Italy threw the city and, in general, all of Southern Italy, in a relative decline in socio-economic, the contemporary Naples remains among the largest and most populous metropolis Italian and Mediterranean, yet retaining its historic vocation of important cultural, scientific and university internationally, as well as great art cities and main tourist attraction. In Naples there is Villa Rosebery, one of three official residences of the President of the Republic.
Positano is a town of 3968 inhabitants of the Italian province of Salerno in Campania, which belongs geographically to the Amalfi Coast.
The mild climate and the beauty of the landscape, Positano has been a resort since the days of the Roman Empire, as attested by the discovery of a villa and more recent discoveries, dating back to 2004. Typical of the many "steps" that come from the country down to the beach. The main beaches are the Praia Grande and that of Fornillo, both within walking distance, the others are La Porta, Arienzo and San Pietro Laureano, all accessible mainly by boat. Positano is also a means of public transport, the Metro sea.
The origin of the city and the name is uncertain, but it is definitely the place name extraction Latina (from Melfi, a Lucan seaside village abandoned by Roman refugees in the fourth century. AD, or the Roman gens Amarfia the first century. D . C.). According to legend, the town takes its name from Amalfi, a nymph loved by Hercules who was buried here by the will of the gods. Definitely settled by the Romans, who had fled to escape the Lattari Mountains Germanic invasions and Lombard, was a castrum in defense of the Byzantine Duchy of Naples. The city enjoyed a privileged relationship with Byzantium for the skill of the Coast in the maritime trade.
It is certain that they were first to invent the compass as a tool for marine magnetic orientation "dry" and spread in the Mediterranean by the middle of the thirteenth century. The legendary inventor Flavio Gioia of Amalfi, in honor of which there is a bronze monument by the artist Alfonso Cavese Balzìco site in the square facing the sea, in fact never existed, it is in fact a misinterpretation due to writers Renaissance in central Italy. An ancient tradition Coast refers instead to a certain John Gioia as the inventor of the instrument marinaro.Questa seamanship skills and great diplomatic skills allowed him to navigate through the entire Amalfi Mediterranean trade relations and peaceful setting with all the neighboring peoples, including Saracens.
Probably founded by Roman settlers in the sixth century. spintisi among the mountainous areas as a good shelter to escape the destruction of the barbarian Vandals, the first certain date from the ninth century on Ravello. when all the centers of the Amalfi coast return to the State. Around the year one thousand was populated by a group of nobles of the Marine Republic of Amalfi, rebelled against the authority of the doge. The town quickly prospered, notably thanks to a thriving wool-spinning mill called "Celendra.
In the eleventh century the Ravellian sought to free themselves from ties to Amalfi: the village was surrounded by walls and noble families began to build their sumptuous residences, electing its own duke Ravello in 1086 also became a bishopric. With the Norman conquest, and their success in the South began the decline of Ravello, in 1131 became part of the kingdom. In 1137 the Republic of Pisa for three days ravaged Ravello: Despite what the Ravellian, clever merchants, had conquered the markets and Arabs, between the twelfth and thirteenth century., The city reached about 36,000 inhabitants.
During the Sicilian Vespers (1282-1302) the French occupied Ravello, which is redeemed by 135 ounces of gold. Led by Justice John Frezza sided with Ladislas of Durazzo in its struggle to regain their kingdom and occupied Scala, instead sided with Louis II of Anjou. In the following centuries Ravello began its decline and also reduced its population in the seventeenth century. plague weakened further the town, decimating the population, in 1818 the diocese was suppressed in Ravello and aggregated again Archdiocese of Amalfi.